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The following year, the Dodgers called up Robinson to the major leagues. On April 15, , Robinson made his major league debut at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26, spectators, including more than 14, black patrons.
Black baseball fans began flocking to see the Dodgers when they came to town, abandoning the Negro league teams that they had followed exclusively.
Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspaper writers and white major league players.
Manager Leo Durocher informed his team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra.
I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded.
Robinson received significant encouragement from several major league players, including Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese who said, "You can hate a man for many reasons.
Color is not one of them. Less than three months later, Larry Doby became the first African-American to break the color barrier in the American League with the Cleveland Indians.
Satchel Paige was signed by the Indians and the Dodgers added star catcher Roy Campanella and Don Newcombe , who was later the first winner of the Cy Young Award for his outstanding pitching.
MLB banned the signing of women to contracts in , but that ban was lifted in From to , the two major leagues consisted of two eight-team leagues.
The 16 teams were located in ten cities, all in the northeastern and midwestern United States: New York City had three teams and Boston , Chicago , Philadelphia , and St.
Louis each had two teams. Louis was the southernmost and westernmost city with a major league team. The longest possible road trip, from Boston to St.
Louis, took about 24 hours by railroad. In , the St. Louis Browns became the Baltimore Orioles. The Giants were already suffering from slumping attendance records at their aging ballpark, the Polo Grounds.
Had the Dodgers moved out west alone, the St. The joint move made West Coast road trips economical for visiting teams.
In , the first Washington Senators franchise moved to Minneapolis—St. Paul to become the Minnesota Twins. Two new teams were added to the American League at the same time: the Los Angeles Angels who soon moved from downtown L.
The Astros known as the "Colt. The Mets established a reputation for futility by going 40— during their first season of play in the nation's media capital—and by playing only a little better in subsequent campaigns—but in their eighth season the Mets became the first of the s expansion teams to play in the postseason, culminating in a World Series title over the heavily favored Baltimore Orioles.
In , the major leagues moved to the "Deep South" when the Braves moved to Atlanta. In , the American and National Leagues both added two expansion franchises.
In , baseball expanded again , adding a second Canadian team, the Toronto Blue Jays , as well as the Seattle Mariners.
Subsequently, no new teams were added until the s and no teams moved until By the late s, the balance between pitching and hitting had swung in favor of the pitchers.
In —later nicknamed "the year of the pitcher"  —Boston Red Sox player Carl Yastrzemski won the American League batting title with an average of just.
In , the American League, which had been suffering from much lower attendance than the National League, sought to increase scoring even further by initiating the designated hitter DH rule.
Throughout the s and s, as baseball expanded, NFL football had been surging in popularity, making it economical for many of these cities to build multi-purpose stadiums instead of single-purpose baseball fields.
Because of climate and economic issues, many of these facilities had playing surfaces made from artificial turf , as well as the oval designs characteristic of stadiums designed to house both baseball and football.
These characteristics changed the nature of professional baseball, putting a higher premium on speed and defense over home-run hitting power, since the fields were often too big for teams to expect to hit many home runs and foul balls hit in the air could more easily be caught for outs.
Teams began to be built around pitching—particularly their bullpens—and speed on the basepaths. Artificial surfaces meant balls traveled quicker and bounced higher, so it became easier to hit ground balls " in the hole " between the corner and middle infielders.
Starting pitchers were no longer expected to throw complete games ; it was enough for a starter to pitch 6—7 innings and turn the game over to the team's closer , a position which grew in importance over these decades.
As stolen bases increased, home run totals dropped. After Willie Mays hit 52 home runs in , only one player George Foster reached that mark until the s.
During the s, baseball experienced a number of significant changes the game had not seen in years. Home runs were on the decline throughout the decade, with players hitting only 40 home runs just 13 times and no one hitting more than 50 home runs in a season for the first time since the Dead-ball era — The Major League Baseball strike from June 12 until July 31 forced the cancellation of total games and resulted in a split-season format.
In , Pete Rose broke Ty Cobb 's all-time hits record with his 4,nd hit, and in Rose received a lifetime ban from baseball as a result of betting on baseball games while manager of the Cincinnati Reds.
Rose was the first person to receive a lifetime ban from baseball since Eleven players were officially suspended, but all the suspensions were commuted in exchange for fines, drug testing, and community service.
The Major League Baseball strike from August 12, to April 25, caused the cancellation of over games and the forfeit of the entire postseason.
In , Major League Baseball opened an investigation into allegations that members of the World Series champion Houston Astros stole signs from opposing teams using technology during the and seasons.
The Astros were found guilty in January and while no active players faced any repercussions, Astros general manager Jeff Luhnow and field manager A.
Hinch were suspended for the entire season. Routinely in the late s and early s, baseball players hit 40 or 50 home runs in a season, a feat that was considered rare even in the s.
It has since become apparent that at least some of this power surge was a result of players using steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs.
Petersburg, Florida. After the season, the team owners voted in favor of contraction. Several MLB teams had been considered for elimination in early talks about contraction, but the Montreal Expos and the Minnesota Twins were the two teams that came closest to folding under the plan.
Plans for MLB contraction were halted when the Twins landlord was awarded a court injunction that required the team to play its home games at their stadium.
MLB owners agreed to hold off on reducing the league's size until at least The Montreal Expos became the first franchise in over three decades to move when they became the Washington Nationals in This move left Canada with just one team, but it also returned baseball to Washington after a year absence.
This franchise shift, like many previous ones, involved baseball's return to a city which had been previously abandoned. Not counting the short-lived Federal League, Montreal is the only city granted an MLB franchise since that does not currently host a team.
A baseball uniform is a type of uniform worn by baseball players , and by some non-playing personnel, such as field managers and coaches.
It is worn to indicate the person's role in the game and—through the use of logos, colors, and numbers —to identify the teams and their players, managers, and coaches.
Traditionally, home uniforms display the team name on the front, while away uniforms display the team's home location. In modern times, however, exceptions to this pattern have become common, with teams using their team name on both uniforms.
The New York Knickerbockers were the first baseball team to use uniforms, taking the field on April 4, , in pants made of blue wool, white flannel shirts jerseys and straw hats.
In the late s, the Detroit Wolverines and Washington Nationals of the National League and the Brooklyn Bridegrooms of the American Association were the first to wear striped uniforms.
Spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Teams hold training camps in the states of Arizona and Florida, where the early warm weather allows teams to practice and play without worrying about late winter cold.
Spring training allows new players to audition for roster and position spots, and gives existing team players practice time prior to competitive play.
The teams that hold spring training in Arizona are grouped into the Cactus League ,  while teams that hold camp in Florida are known as the Grapefruit League.
Autograph seekers also find greater access to players during spring training. Spring training typically lasts almost two months, starting in mid February and running until just before the season opening day, traditionally the first week of April.
As pitchers benefit from a longer training period, pitchers and catchers begin spring training several days before the rest of the team.
Each team's schedule is typically organized into three-game series, with occasional two- or four-game series. A team's series are organized into homestands and road trips that group multiple series together.
Teams generally play games five to seven days per week, commonly having Monday or Thursday as an off day. Frequently, games are scheduled at night.
Sunday games are generally played during the afternoon, allowing teams to travel to their next destination prior to a Monday night game.
In addition, teams will play day games frequently on Opening Day, holidays, and getaway days. Each team plays 19 games against each of its four divisional opponents.
It plays one home series and one away series, amounting to six or seven games, against the 10 other teams in its league. A team also plays one of the divisions in the other league, rotating each year, with two opponents in a three-game home series, two in a three-game away series, and one with four games split between home and away.
Furthermore, each team has an interleague "natural rival" in many cases its counterpart in the same metro area with which it plays two home games and two away games each year.
With an odd number of teams in each league 15 , it is necessary to have two teams participate in interleague play for most days in the season, except when two or more teams have a day off.
Each team plays 20 interleague games throughout the season, usually with just one interleague game per day, but for one weekend in late May all teams will participate in an interleague series.
Use of the DH rule is determined by the home team's league rules. Before , interleague play was structured differently: there would be one weekend in mid-May and another period consisting typically of the last two-thirds of June in which all teams played interleague games save for two NL teams each day , and no interleague games were scheduled outside those dates.
Before , season-long interleague play was not necessary, because each league had an even number of teams. In , the Houston Astros moved to the American League, so that each league would have 15 teams.
Over the course of a season, teams compete for the five playoff berths in their respective leagues. In order to secure a berth, a team must either win its division , or capture a wild card spot by having one of the two best records among the non-winners in its entire league.
After the conclusion of the game season, an additional tie-breaking game or games may be needed to determine postseason participation.
In early-to-mid July, just after the midway point of the season, the Major League Baseball All-Star Game is held during a four-day break from the regular-season schedule.
From to , two games were held each season, one was held in July and one was held in August. The designated-hitter rule was used in the All-Star Game for the first time in Following games used a DH when the game was played in an AL ballpark.
Since , the DH rule has been in effect regardless of venue. Beginning in , the eight position players in each team's starting lineup have been voted into the game by fans.
Fan voting was reinstated in and has continued ever since, including Internet voting in recent years. The contest in Milwaukee controversially ended in an inning tie when both managers ran out of pitchers.
In response, starting in the league which wins the All-Star game received home-field advantage in the World Series: the league champion hosted the first two games at its own ballpark as well as the last two if necessary.
The National League did not win an All-Star game and thus gain home-field advantage until ; it was able to overcome this disadvantage and win in three of the seven World Series from to MLB All-Stars from both leagues have worn uniforms from their respective teams at the game with one exception.
When the regular season ends after the first Sunday in October or the last Sunday in September , ten teams enter the postseason playoffs.
These ten teams consist of six teams that are division champions by earning the best regular season overall win-loss record for their respective divisions, and four who are "wild-card" teams that are each one of two teams in their respective leagues who have earned the best regular season win-loss record, but are not division champions.
Four rounds of series of games are played to determine the champion:. Within each league, the division winners are the 1, 2 and 3 seeds, based on win—loss records.
The team with the best record among non division winners will be the first wildcard and the 4 seed. The team with the second best record among non division winners will be the second wildcard and the 5 seed.
In the wildcard round, the 5 seed will play at the 4 seed in a one-game playoff. For the division series, the matchup will be the 1 seed against the Wild Card Game winner and the 2 seed against the 3 seed.
Because each postseason series is split between the home fields of the two teams, home-field advantage does not usually play a large role in the postseason unless the series goes to its maximum number of games, giving one team an additional game at home.
However, the first two games of a postseason series are hosted by the same team. That team may have an increased chance of starting the series with two wins,  thereby gaining some momentum for the rest of the series.
National League home games use the traditional rules with each team's pitchers batting. The games were an effort to popularize baseball in China.
The two games represented the first MLB regular-season play held in that country. The games counted as home games for the Diamondbacks, so they played 79 home games at Chase Field.
In , the Red Sox were the home team in a regular season two-game series against the Yankees. The games, which were the first regular season MLB games held in Europe, were played on June 29—30 at London Stadium with the Yankees winning both games.
Barry Bonds topped the record in with 73 home runs. McGwire, Bonds and Sosa became the subjects of speculation regarding the use of performance-enhancing substances.
McGwire later admitted that he used a steroid hormone that was still legal in baseball during the season. Players were tested at least once per year, with the chance that several players could be tested many times per year.
A book, Game of Shadows by San Francisco Chronicle investigative reporters Lance Williams and Mark Fainaru-Wada , chronicled alleged extensive use of performance enhancers, including several types of steroids and growth hormone by baseball superstars Barry Bonds, Gary Sheffield , and Jason Giambi.
The appointment was made after several influential members of the U. Congress made negative comments about both the effectiveness and honesty of MLB's drug policies and Commissioner Selig.
The day before the Mitchell Report was to be released in , Selig said, "I haven't seen the report yet, but I'm proud I did it. It pointed out that HGH is likely a placebo with no performance-enhancing effects.
According to ESPN , some people questioned whether Mitchell's director role with the Boston Red Sox created a conflict of interest, especially because no "prime [Sox] players were in the report.
Former U. Dowd brought up Mitchell's conflict of interest,  but he later said that the former senator had done a good job.
They also agreed to implement a new test to reveal the use of testosterone for the season. In early April , Ramirez retired from baseball rather than face a game suspension for his second positive steroid test.
Fox broadcasts all games of the World Series. TBS airs Sunday afternoon regular season games non-exclusive nationally. In , TBS began its exclusive rights to any tiebreaker games that determine division or wild card champions; However, in , the two tiebreaker games were broadcast on ESPN.
These games are typically split between a local broadcast television station and a local or regional sports network RSN , though some teams only air local games through RSNs or through their own team networks.
MLB has several blackout rules. Fox Sports Networks also show many games in other areas. If the Braves played a team that FSN or another local broadcaster showed, the local station will have the broadcast rights for its own local market, while TBS would have been blacked out in the same market during the game.
ESPN Radio holds national broadcast rights and broadcasts Sunday Night Baseball weekly throughout the season in addition to all playoff games.
In addition, each team employs its own announcers, who broadcast during the regular season. Most teams operate regional networks to cover their fan bases; some of these supposedly regional networks such as the New York Yankees Radio Network have a national reach with affiliates located across the United States.
MLB games are also broadcast live on the internet. All television and radio broadcasts of games are available via subscription to MLB.
Blackout rules are still applied for live television broadcasts, but not radio broadcasts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Professional baseball league.
For other uses, see MLB disambiguation. Red Sox. Blue Jays. White Sox. Main article: History of baseball in the United States. Main article: Dead-ball era.
Main article: Baseball color line. Main article: Women in baseball. Main article: Major League Baseball relocation of s—s.
Main articles: Major League Baseball uniforms and Baseball uniform. Main article: Spring training. Main article: Major League Baseball postseason.
See also: Doping in baseball and List of Major League Baseball players suspended for performance-enhancing drugs.
Main article: Major League Baseball on television. See also: List of current Major League Baseball broadcasters.
Main article: Major League Baseball blackout policy. See also: Syndication exclusivity. Main article: Major League Baseball on the radio. Baseball portal.
MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved March 11, The strength of the American League grew as an increasing number of National League players opted for the higher salaries offered by the new association.
Faced with the prospect of losing many of its best players, the NL chose peace and declared the AL its equal in This led to a new National Agreement and the birth of the World Series.
The American and National Leagues were established as major leagues and all other associations comprised the minor leagues, which fell under the jurisdiction of the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues.
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